HPC on linux clusters Nodes and Networks hardware


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Tutorial for the ICTP - INFM school : HPC on Linux
February 2002

Table of contents

HPC on linux clusters Nodes and Networks hardware

Overview

Typical Node Architecture

Computer families/1

Computer families/2

Micro architecture

Superscalar

Pipelining/1

Pipelining/2

Pipelining/3

P3/P4 superpipelining

Branch prediction Speculative execution

x86 uarchitectures

Intel x86 family

AMD Athlon family

Pentium 4 uarchitecture

Athlon uarchitecture

x86 Architecture extensions/1

x86 Architecture extensions/2

x86 architecture extensions/3

x86 architecture extensions/4

SIMD technology

typical SIMD operation

MMX

SSE

SSE2

Cache memory

Cache memory/1

Cache memory/2

Cache memory/3

Cache memory/4

Cache memory/5

Cache memory/6

Cache memory/7

Cache memory/8

Cache memory/9

Cache memory/10

Cache memory/11

Real Caches

Memory performance

MTRR/1

MTRR/2

MTRR/3

MTRR/4

MTRR/5

MTRR/6

Explicit cache control/1

Explicit cache control/2

Performance and timestamp counters/1

Performance and timestamp counters/2

Performance and timestamp counters/3

Performance and timestamp counters/4

Performance and timestamp counters/5

Performance and timestamp counters/6

Performance and timestamp counters/7

Processor bus/1

Processor bus/2

Intel IA32 node

Intel PIII/P4 processor bus

Alpha node

Alpha/Athlon EV6 bus

Pentium 4 (Willamette)

SMPs

Intel MP Processor bus arbitration

Cache coherency

Cache consistency

Snooping

Intel MP snooping

MESI protocol

MESI states

L2/L1 coherence

Atomic Read Modify Write

Intel MP interrupts

PCI Bus

PCI efficiency

PCI 2.2/X timing diagram

common chipsets PCI performance

Memory buses

Interconnects /1

LogP metrics (Culler)

LogP diagram

Interconnects /2

Interconnects /3

Interconnects /4

Interconnects /5

Interconnects /6

Interconnects /7

Interconnects /8

Interconnects /9

Interconnects /10

Interconnects /11

Bisection /1

Bisection /2

Bisection /3

NIC Interconnection point(from D.Culler)

Ethernet history

Ethernet

Ethernet Frames

VLAN

Hubs

Ethernet flow/control

Auto Negotiation

GigE

Network (Physical Layer)

Network (Physical Layer)

LVDS/1

LVDS/2

LVDS/3

LVDS/4

VCSEL/1

VCSEL/2-EEL (Edge Emitting)

VCSEL/3- Surface Emission

VCSEL/4

VCSEL/5

MINI (Memory Integrated Network Interface)

MINI/2

Infiniband/1

Infiniband/2

Infiniband/3

Infiniband/4

Infiniband/5

Myrinet/1

Myrinet/2

Myrinet/3

Clos networks

Clos networks/2

Software

Software overhead

Zero Copy Research

OS bypass / User level networking

Active Messages (AM)

FastMessages (FM)

VIA/1

VIA/2

VIA/3

Software layering

Network layering considered harmful ?

Linux Socket buffers (sk_buff)

Memory Management

Linux 2.4 kiobuff

Bibliography

Author: Roberto Innocente

E-mail: rinnocente@eurohpc.org

Compressed postscript: ictp-school.ps.gz

Pdf : ictp-school2.pdf

Author: Roberto Innocente